Weight problems and obesity result from the combination of many factors, including physical, social and psychological aspects. Here we look at some factors which can be classified as environmental, although they may interact with psychological processes.
The term “obesogenic environment” refers to “an environment that promotes gaining weight and one that is not conducive to weight loss” within the home, community or workplace. In other words, the obesogenic environment refers to an environment that helps, or contributes to, obesity.
Some environmental factors promoting obesity are:
Each of us lives in our own unique environment, so the obstacles and advantages for achieving and maintaining healthy habits are also unique.
Let's do an exercise. Think about something/someone in your life that is "weighing" on you. In what ways does this thing/person promote weight gain and obesity?
Be honest with yourself. If you can't see the problem you won't be able to fix it.
By taking an honest inventory of the environments you live in, you are in a position to make changes that will pay off in better health and wellness. The beautiful thing about this type of self-development work is that it doesn't feel like work, because you are making your life both easier and more productive at the same time.
Stephen Stotland, Ph.D.
Mindfulness has become a popular topic in relation to weight control. Many are suggesting that learning to eat more mindfully should lead to healthier eating, and possibly to better weight control. That of course has not been proven yet, although it does seem like a logical prediction. So, what is mindfulness, how do you get more of it, and how does it improve weight control?
Mindfulness refers to a state of mind in which we notice what we are thinking and feeling, without getting lost in our thoughts or trapped in our feelings. Mindfulness training is thought to gradually develop the quality of “equanimity”, which means that we get better at not amplifying our reactions, be they positive (“the ice cream is so good, I can’t stop eating it”) or negative (“I can’t take this feeling and I must make it go away this instant”). In meditation practice, we try to notice everything non-judgmentally, without acting on it.
Engaging regularly in some form of mental practice, such as mindfulness meditation seems to have beneficial effects on the quality of our mindset. To get the most out of our efforts in pursuit of our goals, such as to get in better shape or to increase our overall life satisfaction, it helps to deal with the behaviour change process in a mindful manner, focusing more on the day-to-day process and less on the outcome.
When it comes to weight control, the concept of mindfulness has many implications and applications:
Let's start with Eating. We define mindful eating as paying attention without judgment to sensations of hunger, fullness and desires to eat and their connection to other thoughts and feelings.
By eating more mindfully, do we eat less/more (quantity) or differently (quality)? Does it have a significant effect on our weight? Can we learn mindful eating without practicing meditation? There is little or no research addressing these questions.
Is mindfulness enough?
When we think about the decision-making process for eating, we realize that being mindful about our impulses to eat or not eat may not be enough to produce better choices. We may also need a strategy such as the one I define as "moderation". The question is how do mindfulness and moderation relate to each other?
Moderation starts with the intention to eat the "right way"; i.e., the optimal amount and types of food. What is "right" or "optimal" is hard to define, so we think of it more as a general strategy, like a meta goal. There is not a specific requirement to follow a particular diet or an eating plan, but more like a strategy to eat reasonably and intelligently.
I sometimes refer to moderation as "intelligent restraint." There are as many variations on what this looks like as there are individuals, because we have our own individual preferences and biological needs for food. The strategy must map on to what we need to support our health and wellness.
Intelligent Restraint is different than the prototypical "diet mentality." The typical diet mentality is a type of "rigid" restraint, based on strict eating rules ("eat this, not that"), anxiety about breaking the rules, and guilt and loss of confidence if and when (it is inevitable) there's any lapse in the restraint. In contrast, intelligent restraint is being a smart and reasonable eater. It does not mean being inflexible. For example, taking a small ice cream cone instead of a medium or large one, realizing that the first 10 bites are the best, after which the satisfaction per bite decreases rapidly, and remembering that there will be other occasions to eat ice cream, and this is not the last chance. This mindset, to the extent that we follow it, leads to a significant reduction in unhealthy eating and an increase in healthy choices, while satisfying our taste preferences at the same time.
The mindset that we want to cultivate is best referred to as "mindful and moderate". The operation of this mindset works on the principles of sensitivity to internal signals, along with an attitude of moderation.
To summarize, you need to learn to pay attention to your body's signals and you also need to sharpen your intelligent restraint. Mindfulness is necessary, but so is good judgment.
In our program, we work to help you move from rigid restraint to intelligent restraint, to mindful and moderate eating. These principles apply to the way you eat, and how you regulate your physical activity, stress management, and general health and wellness. In other words, it's kind of an all-purpose strategy, perhaps even a way of life.
Stephen Stotland, Ph.D.
This blog presents some of our ideas about the key issues involved in achieving successful long-term weight control.